Grillo, et Parolin avec lui, estiment que Summorum Pontificum constitue une aberration dans le monde de Vatican II, en mettant sur le même pied théorique deux formes liturgiques, celle correspondant au Concile de Trente et celle issue du Concile Vatican II. In 1958 John XXIII eliminated the restriction of 70, increasing the number of cardinals to 87, and since then the number has reached more than 100. Thank you! As of 2005, there were over 50 churches recognized as cardinalatial deaconries, though there were only 30 cardinals of the order of deacons. Cela aura été une fin de non-recevoir pour le pauvre cardinal Zen, évêque émérite de Hong-Kong et vaillant opposant à l’accord signé entre le Saint-Siège et la Chine, que le pape François a refusé de rencontrer.  Excluding the rochet—which is always white—the scarlet garments include the cassock, mozzetta, and biretta (over the usual scarlet zucchetto). Cardinal Burke, who is the former archbishop of St. Louis, Mo., made his remarks in an interview with Catholic Action for Faith and Family, which was quoted in the Catholic News Agency on Sept. 29. Il a produit un mouvement de rénovation qui vient simplement de l’Évangile lui-même. The Dean of the College of Cardinals, the highest ranking cardinal, was formerly the longest serving cardinal bishop, but since 1965 is elected by the Latin Church cardinal bishops from among their number, subject to papal approval.
As the centuries progressed, the pope was in need of more help in administering the growing Church and appointed certain regional bishops to be cardinals. In 1059, the right of electing the pope was reserved to the principal clergy of Rome and the bishops of the seven suburbicarian sees. Diacre. after their personal name and before their surname as, for instance, "John Card(inal) Doe" or, in Latin, "Ioannes Card(inalis) Doe". Certes, des négociations exploratoires avaient été menées de longue date par le Saint-Siège, notamment par les visites successives en Chine du cardinal Etchegaray. Daniel Fernando, S.D.B. Ce qui provoqua notamment les critiques véhémentes du cardinal Zen, accusant Pietro Parolin de « vendre l’Église catholique au gouvernement communiste ». A cardinal (Latin: Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally "cardinal of the Holy Roman Church") is a leading bishop and prince of the College of Cardinals in the Catholic Church. In Rome the first persons to be called cardinals were the deacons of the seven regions of the city at the beginning of the 6th century, when the word began to mean “principal,” “eminent,” or “superior.” The name was also given to the senior priest in each of the “title” churches (the parish churches) of Rome and to the bishops of the seven sees surrounding the city.
", "Lacunza Maestrojuán Card. Guruge, Anura. Omissions? The Sacred College of Cardinals, with its structure of three orders (bishops, priests, and deacons), originated in the reform of Urban II (1088–99). Déjà, un certain nombre des évêques « officiels » nommés par Pékin, d’abord, puis peu à peu la grande majorité d’entre eux, avaient, à leur demande et après examen au cas par cas, été réintégrés dans la communion avec Rome. 15 septembre 2020. , Cardinals have in canon law a "privilege of forum" (i.e., exemption from being judged by ecclesiastical tribunals of ordinary rank): only the pope is competent to judge them in matters subject to ecclesiastical jurisdiction (cases that refer to matters that are spiritual or linked with the spiritual, or with regard to infringement of ecclesiastical laws and whatever contains an element of sin, where culpability must be determined and the appropriate Most have additional missions, such as leading a diocese or a dicastery of the Roman Curia, the equivalent of a government of the Holy See. , As of 28 October 2020,[update] there are 218 cardinals, 120 of whom are cardinal electors. The Role of Cardinals in the Catholic Church, Holy Days of Obligation in the Catholic Church, Mortal and Venial Sins in the Catholic Church. In some cases, they took on powerful positions in government. In 1917 it was established that all cardinals, even cardinal deacons, had to be priests, and, in 1962, Pope John XXIII set the norm that all cardinals be ordained as bishops, even if they are only priests at the time of appointment. Cardinal Raymond Burke, the former Archbishop of St. Louis. The right to enter the Papal conclave of cardinals where the pope is elected is limited to those who have not reached the age of 80 years by the day the vacancy occurs. From the time of the Avignon papacy (1309–77), the question of the lack of internationality in the College of Cardinals became an increasingly important one; a reform under Sixtus V (1585–90) attempted to provide for it.
Il en va tout autrement de Pietro Parolin. At the June 2018 consistory, it was announced that, corresponding to the expansion in cardinal priests and cardinal deacons in recent decades, there would be an expansion in Latin Church cardinal bishops. Parolin expliquait que, de même qu’elle était passée, selon lui, à l’origine, du judéo-christianisme au pagano-christianisme, elle a fait, lors de Vatican II une mue tout aussi radicale. The question continued to be raised at various times, particularly in the second half of the 20th century. Until 1917, it was possible for someone who was not a priest, but only in minor orders, to become a cardinal (see "lay cardinals", below), but they were enrolled only in the order of cardinal deacons. Cardinals serve as chief officials of the Roman Curia (the papal bureaucracy), as bishops of major dioceses, and often as papal envoys. The term cardinal is from the latin word "cardo" meaning a hinge. In 1587, Pope Sixtus V sought to arrest this growth by fixing the maximum size of the College at 70, including 50 cardinal priests, about twice the historical number. They were formerly called illustrissimi and reverendissimi; but Pope Urban VIII (of the Barberini family), in 1630, established the above as their title of honour. While the incumbents of some sees are regularly made cardinals, and some countries are entitled to at least one cardinal by concordate (usually earning either its primate or the metropolitan of the capital city the cardinal's hat), no see carries an actual right to the cardinalate, not even if its bishop is a Patriarch. In modern times, the name "cardinal priest" is interpreted as meaning a cardinal who is of the order of priests. Le travail de la réforme liturgique fut un service du peuple en tant que relecture de l’Évangile à partir d’une situation historique concrète. La volonté de Parolin et de ses amis est de ramener au droit commun la nébuleuse Ecclesia Dei, pour laquelle le motu proprio de 1988 avait créé un état d’exception. The primary responsibility of a cardinal is to elect a new pope when a pope dies or abdicates the papacy.  They are allowed to celebrate Mass and hear confessions and lead visits and pilgrimages to their titular churches, in coordination with the staff of the church. His normal-wear cassock is black but has scarlet piping and a scarlet fascia (sash). , Additionally, canon law gives cardinals the faculty of hearing confessions validly and licitly everywhere, whereas other priests and bishops must be granted this faculty and might be restricted in its use by the local bishop.. Occasionally, a cardinal wears a scarlet ferraiolo which is a cape worn over the shoulders, tied at the neck in a bow by narrow strips of cloth in the front, without any 'trim' or piping on it. Certain clerics in many dioceses at the time, not just that of Rome, were said to be the key personnel—the term gradually became exclusive to Rome to indicate those entrusted with electing the bishop of Rome, the pope. Their number and influence has varied through the years.  As a consequence of these two changes, canon 351 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law requires that a cardinal be at least in the order of priesthood at his appointment, and that those who are not already bishops must receive episcopal consecration. Sometimes the pope appoints cardinals in pectore (Latin: “in the breast”), without declaring their names; only when the name of a cardinal in pectore is revealed does he assume the rights and duties of the office. "Klaus Ganzer, Kardinäle als Kirchenfürsten?"
« C’est un pays, ajoutait-il, où le “bien commun” est la valeur première ; tout y est secondaire par rapport au bien commun ! No more than 120 electors have ever participated in a conclave, but most canon lawyers believe that if their number exceeded 120 they would all participate.[a]. At the time of the announcement, all six cardinal bishops of suburbicarian see titles, as well as two of the three cardinal patriarchs, were non-electors because of having reached age 80. José Luis, O.A.R. Cardinals may also be created in pectore (reserved 'in the breast'), in which case they are not publicly revealed by the pope; they do not enjoy the privileges of a cardinal until their names are published. By the 8th century the Roman cardinals constituted a privileged class among the Roman clergy.
, In 1630, Pope Urban VIII decreed their title to be Eminence (previously, it had been "illustrissimo" and "reverendissimo")[b] and decreed that their secular rank would equate to Prince, making them secondary only to the Pope and crowned monarchs. If a pope dies before revealing the identity of an in pectore cardinal, the person's status as cardinal expires. In 1965, Pope Paul VI decreed in his motu proprio Ad purpuratorum Patrum Collegium that patriarchs of the Eastern Catholic Churches who were named cardinals (i.e.  There is now no gemstone, and the pope chooses the image on the outside: under Pope Benedict XVI it was a modern depiction of the crucifixion of Jesus, with Mary and John to each side. Pietro Parolin a servi dans diverses nonciatures, puis est revenu à Rome en 1992.
Wilton Gregory, the archbishop of Washington, D.C., and a leader of the U.S. Roman Catholic Church’s response to its sexual abuse crisis, was among 13 new cardinals …
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